2020-11-30 15:03:22


全国人口普查 national census

China on Sunday started its seventh national census, with about 7 million census takers going door to door to document demographic changes. The census collects data including the name, ID number, gender, marital status, education, and profession of Chinese citizens.


全国人口普查(national census)是指在国家统一规定的时间内(within a defined period),按照统一的方法、统一的项目、统一的调查表和统一的标准时点(using the same method, categories and survey forms at a set time),对全国人口普遍地、逐户逐人地进行的一次性调查登记。

普查对象是普查标准时点在中华人民共和国境内的自然人(the natural persons living within the territory of the People's Republic of China on the standard time point of census)以及在中华人民共和国境外但未定居的中国公民(the Chinese citizens who are outside the territory of the People's Republic of China but have not become permanent residents of the other country),不包括在中华人民共和国境内短期停留的境外人员(foreigners who are making a short-term stay within the territory of the People's Republic of China shall be excluded)。


When census takers knock on your door, you can answer the questions by registering the information directly on the smart devices. Or,the census taker will offer you an account number and a QR code so that you can register your information within a certain time.




All information collected is filled in through the internet and is directly uploaded to the national database in real-time, eliminating possible human interference.

Both the mobile end and the server end have adopted highly strict data encryption and desensitization technology so that personal information cannot be hacked or disclosed during the process of data transmission.


杂交水稻 hybrid rice



Despite unfavorable weather conditions this year, the two harvests combined-consisting of early-season and late-season crops-surpassed 22.5 tons per hectare, realizing the goal set earlier this year by renowned agricultural expert Yuan Longping, who has spearheaded research into hybrid rice strains.


这里的harvest用作名词表示“(农作物的)收成”,与yield可以互换使用。Yield这个词可以用作名词和动词,表示“产量、收益”或者“屈服、投降、退让”等意思,比如:yield to someone/something(屈服于某人或某事),yield to impulse(一时冲动),yield to pressure(屈服于压力);yield a profit(获得收益),lucrative yield(丰厚的收益),average annual yield(平均年产量)等。

“杂交水稻”hybrid rice中的hybrid是一个用法很多的名词,除了表示“(动植物的)杂交品种”以外,还可以表示“(使用多种动力来源的)混合动力车”,比如:Most car manufacturers now offer hybrids.(大多数汽车厂商现在都提供混合动力车型)。


The fresh record means a 1-hectare hybrid rice field can feed as many as 75 people.

I am more than excited and extremely satisfied with the results.

The next goal is to promote the experiences of Hengnan county and plant the advanced rice variety in other rice-producing regions in China, contributing to safeguarding the country's food security.

据了解,第三代杂交水稻技术被袁隆平看作是突破亩产“天花板”的关键。专家认为,第三代杂交水稻的“基因强大”,具有高产(high-yielding)、抗病(disease-resistant)、抗寒(cold resistant)、抗倒(lodging resistant)等特点。


China now feeds around 20 percent of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the world's arable land.

Yuan, who developed the world's first hybrid rice in the 1970s, has set multiple world records in hybrid rice yields in previous years, making great contributions to the food security of China and the world.


第三届中国国际进口博览会 the third China International Import Expo

11月4日,第三届中国国际进口博览会(the third China International Import Expo)暨虹桥国际经济论坛(the Hongqiao International Economic Forum)开幕式将在上海举行。



Though affected by COVID-19, this year's CIIE is attracting global exhibitors in droves. Nearly 50 Fortune 500 and industry-leading companies are participating for the first time, as well as international debuts of hundreds of new products, technologies and services.


中国国际进口博览会(China International Import Expo,CIIE),是迄今为止世界上第一个以进口为主题的国家级展会(the world’s first import expo held at the national level),是国际贸易发展史上一大创举。举办中国国际进口博览会,是中国着眼于推动新一轮高水平对外开放作出的重大决策(an important decision made by China to pursue a new round of high-level opening-up),是中国主动向世界开放市场的重大举措。这体现了中国支持多边贸易体制、推动发展自由贸易的一贯立场(China’s consistent position of supporting the multilateral trading system and promoting free trade),是中国推动建设开放型世界经济、支持经济全球化的实际行动(a concrete action by China to advance an open world economy and support economic globalization)。


The expo's total exhibition area has been expanded by 30,000 square meters, covering six exhibitions-food and agricultural products, automobiles, equipment, consumer goods, healthcare and services.


Four new special sections will debut including public health and epidemic prevention, energy saving and environmental protection, smart transportation and sporting/gaming.



Altogether, 112,000 domestic companies from across the country have formed 39 trade missions, and total registered professional buyers reached 400,000.

Two-thirds of them come from the country's three major economic engines-the Yangtze River Delta, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and nearly 1,400 of the companies import more than $100 million in goods annually.



Themed on dealing with common challenges through collaboration, the Hongqiao International Economic Forum will be held during the expo, with some high-level politicians, business executives and experts attending the forum online.

An Italy business delegation will attend the third CIIE with 55 world intangible cultural heritages and more than 80 exhibitors.


All expo participants will need to take COVID-19 testing, temperature checks and submit health declarations. Visitors from overseas will undergo a 14-day quarantine.

In the expo venue, five medical stations and 26 temporary observation zones will be stationed by 400 medics. Across the city, 33 hospitals were designated to handle any emergency cases from the expo.

和往届进博会不同,今年进博会展区内将不零售冷冻生鲜食品(fresh & frozen food),禁止试吃未经“全熟加工”的冷冻生鲜食品。


三峡工程 the Three Gorges project

China's Ministry of Water Resources and the National Development and Reform Commission announced the official full completion of the project's construction, saying the Three Gorges project has met all design requirements, has a good overall performance, and fulfills the key roles of flood control, electricity generation, shipping and water-resource utilization.


三峡工程(the Three Gorges project)全称为长江三峡水利枢纽工程。整个工程包括一座混凝重力式大坝(concrete gravity structure),泄水闸(sluice gate),一座堤后式水电站(hydropower station at dam toe),一座永久性通航船闸(navigation lock)和一架升船机(lifter)。三峡工程建筑由大坝、水电站厂房和通航建筑物三大部分组成。大坝坝顶总长3035米,坝高185米。三峡工程是迄今为止世界上规模最大的水利枢纽工程(the world's biggest water conservancy project)和综合效益最广泛的水电工程(a hydropower project with widespread benefits)。

监测表明,拦河大坝及泄洪消能(flood drainage)、引水发电(water diversion and power generation)、通航(navigation)及茅坪溪防护工程等主要建筑物工作性态正常,机电系统及设备、金属结构设备运行安全稳定。


By the end of August, the dam had held back 180 billion cubic meters of water during flood seasons. It saw inflows of over 70,000 cubic meters per second in 2010,2012 and this year and reduced flood peaks by about 40 percent, the review said, greatly easing flood-control pressure in downstream rice-growing areas.


The world's largest hydropower station, the dam had generated over 1.35 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity by August, contributing to electricity supply in Central and East China and in Guangdong province.



During dry seasons, discharges have been raised to more than 5,500 cubic meters per second, providing more than 20 billion cubic meters of water a year for the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.


By the end of August, the reservoir had provided replenishment for 2,267 days, with a total water supply of 289.4 billion cubic meters, optimizing production, living conditions and the ecology of the river's middle and lower reaches, the review said.


这里的replenishment表示“the act of filling something up again by replacing what has been used”,也就是“补给;重新补足”等意思,比如: product replenishment(补货),Bone marrow plays an important role in the constant replenishment of red blood cells.(骨髓在持续补充红细胞方面发挥重要作用)。



Electricity produced by the power station was equivalent to that from burning 430 million metric tons of standard coal, leading to a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.


The project has also significantly improved navigation conditions and bolstered shipping capacity and freight volume in the Yangtze, the review said. By August, some 1.48 billion tons of cargo had passed through the Three Gorges Dam, boosting development in the Yangtze's economic belt.


The production and living environments of the 1.31 million people who were relocated to make way for the Three Gorges project have been greatly improved, and infrastructure and public service facilities in the reservoir area have developed rapidly, it said.

进口冷链食品 imported cold-chain food


China is doubling down on efforts to stem the transmission of the novel coronavirus through imported cold-chain products, requiring thorough disinfection of such shipments before they come into contact with domestic workers.


这里的double down最初见于纸牌类赌博游戏,指的是玩家认为自己手里的牌好,所以“加倍下注”,后来这个短语就用来表示“冒风险做某事”。到了21世纪,这个短语的含义继续拓展,多用于商业、媒体、时政等领域,表示to work twice as hard,即“加大力度做某事”,常用的搭配是double down on something,比如:Fox is doubling down on its marketing efforts to give the movie a big boost.(福克斯正在加大市场推广力度,强推这部影片)。当然了,用在负面信息的语境中也是可以的,比如:Instead of learning from his mistakes, he's doubling down.(他没有从错误中吸取教训,而是开始变本加厉)。

方案要求,在确保进口冷链食品安全的同时,提升口岸通关效率(improve customs clearance efficiency ),避免货物积压滞港(avoid overstocking),保障产业链供应链稳定(ensure the stability of the industrial and supply chain)。


For imported cold-chain foods that test negative for the virus, the interiors of cold chain vans and the outer packaging of the foods should be disinfected before being transported. The foods that test positive for COVID-19 will be returned or destroyed.



The plan requires cold-chain logistics firms to strictly check customs clearance documents for imported cold-chain foods and disinfect vehicles, ships, and other transportation equipment. Workers who have direct contact with the foods should take protective measures.

Cold storages should keep records of imported cold-chain foods coming in and out, and the records should be kept for at least two years, read the plan.



Sellers of imported cold-chain foods must present disinfection certificates before their products are allowed to enter the market, according to the document.

Efforts should go into ensuring all the imported cold-chain foods entering the market are traceable, the plan said.


载人潜水器 manned submersible

China's deep-sea manned submersible Fendouzhe, or Striver, set a national diving record of 10,909 meters on Tuesday in the Challenger Deep, a 11,000-meter chasm located at the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean, according to the Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering under the Chinese Academy of Sciences.



所谓坐底,是在综合考虑潜水器速度、姿态和海底地质情况下,让潜水器人为地在海底着陆(land at the seabed)。

在载人潜水器(manned submersible)方面,我国先后研制了“蛟龙”号、“深海勇士”号,“奋斗者”号是我国新一代载人潜水器。此外,我国还有“海斗”号、“海燕”号和“海翼”号等无人潜水器(unmanned submersible)。

与其相关的“深潜技术”(deep-dive technology),指在深海环境利用深潜器(deep-diving submersible)进行水下考察(underwater exploration)、海底勘探(seabed exploration)、海底开发和打捞(seabed development and salvage)、救生(rescue)等任务的技术。


The world's current deepest diving manned submersible is DSV Limiting Factor, which reached 10,927 meters last year.



The submersible, together with the mother ships Exploration 1 and Exploration 2, set off from Sanya, Hainan province, for the 10,000-meter-deep-sea diving operation on Oct 10.

The submersible first broke the 10,000-meter milestone by descending to 10,058 meters at the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean on Oct 27.


研究生导师指导行为准则 code of conduct for postgraduates' supervisors


Supervisors shoulder the primary responsibility in cultivating postgraduate students and the important task of nurturing high-end and innovative talent, the Ministry of Education said.




should not present speeches or actions that go against the Party's theories and policies, violate State laws and regulations, damage the image of the Party and the State, or deviate from the core socialist values.

should not organize or participate in any activity that may compromise the fairness and impartiality of examination and admissions

should not neglect to supervise and advise graduate students on their academic progress and the academic problems they face

should not ask students to do things irrelevant to their academic study, scientific research and social service

should not purposely delay students' graduation

should not violate the academic standards or harm the academic research rights and interests of graduate students

should not submit dissertations that do not meet academic standards and quality requirements for review and defense

should not make misrepresentation, fraudulent claim, or misappropriation of research funds or other expenses in the name of graduate students

should not humiliate students

should not have inappropriate relationships with students

准则强调,对违反准则的导师,培养单位要依规采取约谈、限招(limit the number of students they can supervise)、停招直至取消导师资格(disqualify them from supervising any students)等处理措施;对情节严重、影响恶劣的,一经查实,要坚决清除出教师队伍(be banned from teaching);涉嫌违法犯罪的移送司法机关处理(transferred to judicial authorities)。


冬季疫情防控 epidemic prevention and control in the winter


China is likely to see sporadic outbreaks of scattered infections throughout the winter and to experience regional outbreaks. To tackle the risks, the country will carry out a public health and hygiene campaign in the coming seasons to help prevent COVID-19 and other seasonal infectious diseases, Li said at a press briefing.


这里的sporadic是形容词,表示“happening sometimes; not regular or continuous”,即“偶尔发生的;不规律、不连续的”,与occasional意思接近,不过sporadic的意思要比occasional略广,它既可以表示“零星的”,也可以表示“偶然的,不规律的”,但occasional通常只用来表示“偶然的,不规律的”。比如:His job requires occasional trips to the West Coast.这句话中的occasional就可以用sporadic来替换,但是表达“零星的病例”sporadic outbreaks的时候,我们通常不会用occasional来替换。



China's flu vaccine production this year has doubled compared with last year, reaching a five-year high.

About 25 million doses of flu vaccines had been used nationwide to vaccinate people by Nov 9, which is almost equal to last year's total.



The National Health Commission will intensify nucleic acid tests on staff at quarantine sites, workers involved in handling cold-chain imports and other imported goods, in tandem with regular tests on high-risk groups, including close contacts of confirmed cases, incoming passengers and people with a fever.

In addition, tests on environmental samples taken from medical institutions, agricultural markets and cold-chain facilities will be stepped up, he said, adding that comprehensive disinfection on imported cold products will be enforced.

Virus control measures at key venues deemed at higher risk of the virus's spread, including schools, nursing homes and charity facilities for people with disabilities, should be strengthened to stamp out potential infection clusters.



"We do not recommend people touring abroad. For those who have to go abroad for humanitarian purposes or other reasons, it is important for them to take good self-protective measures and have full knowledge of COVID-19 prevention and control policies at their countries of destination", Luo Zhaohui, vice-foreign minister, said at a news conference.


Li said control and prevention efforts will only be strengthened due to higher risks of imported infections during the winter, which is also a peak season for other respiratory infections.


区域全面经济伙伴关系协定 Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

After eight years of negotiations, 15 Asia-Pacific countries signed the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) on Nov 15, the world's biggest trade pact. The agreement involves all 10 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and five of its major trading partners-China, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand.


出售荣耀 Honor brand sold



Over 30 agents and dealers of Huawei's Honor brand have acquired all business assets of the budget cellphone brand, according to the joint statement.


这里的budget cellphone中的budget跟航空领域的budget airlines的用法一样,都是形容词,表示“价格低廉的,花钱少的”。Budget更常见的用法是名词或动词,表示“预算”或“做预算、规划”,比如government budget(政府预算),a weekly budget for a family of five(五口之家一周的花销预算);budget your time wisely(合理规划你的时间),budget a new hospital(拨出预算建一所新医院)等。


"This acquisition represents a market-driven investment made to save Honor's industry chain. It is the best solution to protect the interests of Honor's consumers, channel sellers, suppliers, partners and employees," according to the joint statement.

The acquisition is a multi-win move for the industry, says the statement, adding that all shareholders of the new Honor company will fully support the development of the Honor brand, enabling it to leverage the industry's advantages in resources, brands, production, channels, and services, and more effectively compete in the marketplace.

The change in ownership will not impact Honor's development direction or the stability of its executive and talent teams, allowing the company to continuously consolidate its foundation for success, says the statement.

荣耀品牌诞生于2013年,始终面向年轻人,坚持中低端价位,七年间发展成为年出货量超七千万部(annual shipments of over 70 million)的互联网手机品牌。


5G连接数 5G connections

5G connections in China are expected to reach 200 million by the end of 2020, contributing to more than 85 percent of the global total, according to a recent analysis by GSMA, an international association of mobile operators.


5G(5th generation mobile communication technology),即第五代移动通信技术,将提升移动网络的作用,不仅让人与人之间互联,更让机器、物体和终端之间互联互控。

5G是一个全新的通讯技术,具有高速率(high data rate)、大容量(high capacity)、低时延(short latency)的特性,这使得5G技术在物联网(Internet of Things)、智慧家居(smart home)、远程服务(remote service)、外场支援(field support)、虚拟现实(virtual reality)、增强现实(augmented reality)等领域有了新的应用。


As of September, 107 carriers have commercialized 5G networks in 47 countries and regions. It is expected that 149 carriers will commercialize 5G networks in 57 countries and regions by the end of 2020.

By the end of 2025, 410 carriers are expected to commercialize 5G networks in 123 countries and regions.

2019年10月31日,三大运营商公布5G商用套餐(5G data plans),并于11月1日正式上线,标志着中国正式进入5G商用时代。

数据显示,截至9月底,中国5G基站(5G base station)累计超过69万个,基本实现地市级5G覆盖,今年50万个5G基站的建设目标提前完成,5G累计终端连接数已超过1.6亿。

5G technologies have been utilized in more than 20 industries including marine, power grids, healthcare and manufacturing.

By the end of September, China's three major telecom operators had launched more than 5,000 innovation projects and signed around 1,000 5G business contracts.

流失文物 lost cultural relics



The cultural relics date from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) to the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), encompassing a variety of items, mainly ceramics. They are from provinces including Jiangxi, Anhui, Fujian, Henan, Shaanxi, Hebei and Guizhou.


我们常见的cultural relics里面的relic指“an object, tradition, or system from the past that continues to exist”,即“从过去流传至今的物件、传统或体系”,在考古领域多指“从过去遗留下来的物件,没有现实用处,但多具有历史意义”或者“遗迹、遗物”等。Artifact,在英式英语中写作artefact,一般指“手工制品”,在考古领域则多指挖掘出来的“手工制作的(工具、武器、饰品等具有考古或历史价值的)文物”。因此在表示“历史文物”的时候,relic涵盖的范围要比artifact要广一些,而且这两个词一般都用复数形式。

Their return brings an end to a quarter-century of China's efforts to retrieve lost cultural relics from overseas, said Guan Qiang, deputy director of the administration.


这里用常见词return表示“返还、回归”很好理解,更加正式的表达可以用repatriate historical artifacts或者名词形式repatriation of historical artifacts,repatriate表示send something back to its home country(把...送回国),如果是repatriate someone则表示“遣返、遣送回国”。

“追索流散文物”可以用retrieve lost cultural relics/historical artifacts表示。Retrieve 表示“找回,重新获得”,比如追讨官员赃款(retrieve officials' illegal gains),找到遗体(retrieve bodies)等。

1989年,中国接受联合国教科文组织1970年《关于禁止和防止非法进出口文化财产和非法转让其所有权的方法的公约》(the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property),之后与20多个国家就打击非法文物交易以及流失文物追索返还签署双边协议(bilateral agreements on fighting the illegal transfer of and facilitating the repatriation of relics)。


金砖国家新工业革命伙伴关系 BRICS partnership on the new industrial revolution

President Xi Jinping said that China will work with other parties to flesh out the BRICS Partnership on New Industrial Revolution at a faster pace, adding that China will set up an innovation center for such a partnership in Xiamen, Fujian province to advance cooperation on policy coordination, personnel training and project development. Xi made the remarks on Nov 17 when addressing the 12th BRICS Summit via video link.


暴雪 snowstorm



Snowstorms in China's northernmost province of Heilongjiang have grounded more than 100 flights and forced expressways and schools to be closed, local authorities said.


这里的ground用作动词,表示“使...停留在地面(港口)不能移动”,多用于轮船、飞机等运输设备,所以上面这句话我们也可以说more than 100 flights were grounded because of the snowstorm。另外,经常看美剧的同学应该能注意到,ground有时候也用来表示家长对做错事的孩子进行惩罚,不让他们出去玩,就是“禁足”,比如:My parents grounded me for a week(我爸妈让我禁足一个星期)或I am grounded for a week(我被禁足一个星期)。

Snowfall of up to 25.8 mm was recorded in cities including Harbin and Mudanjiang, bringing a blanket of snow 17 cm deep in some places, according to the province's meteorological center.

In Jilin province, heavy rains and strong winds have forced many cities to close their primary and middle schools and kindergartens for one or two days, including in the capital city Changchun, as well as Songyuan and Baicheng.

The Changchun Longjia International Airport has been closed, with a total of 126 flights canceled and 17 flights delayed as of 3 pm. Train services at three major railway stations in Changchun have also been partially closed.

Police in Liaoning province have imposed traffic restrictions on expressways due to the snow, while some highways have been closed.

The National Meteorological Center said snow will continue to lower temperatures by 8 to 10 degrees, but will taper off from Friday through Sunday. The snow system will move toward Northwest and North China, including the Xinjiang Uygur and Ningxia Hui autonomous regions, Beijing and Gansu province. Heavy rainfall is expected in some areas.


这里的taper off是一个固定搭配的短语,表示“逐渐减少、变小”等意思,比如:Her voice tapered off as she realized everyone was listening.(当她意识到大家都在听时,她的声音就越来越小了)。Taper作为动词,本身也表示“逐渐变小、变细、变窄”等意思,比如:The cave tapered to a narrow passageway.(那个洞穴慢慢变成了一条窄窄的通道)。


嫦娥五号 Chang'e-5



Chang'e-5, comprising an orbiter,a returner, a lander, and an ascender, with a total takeoff mass of 8.2 tonnes, is expected to accomplish unmanned rendezvous and docking in lunar orbit.


“嫦娥五号”的英文是Chang'e-5,而我国首个载人飞船“神舟五号”的英文是Shenzhou V。这是因为,在英文报道中,无人航空飞行器、卫星、火箭等(unmanned space vessels, satellites, rockets)的编号一般用阿拉伯数字,而载人飞行器(manned spacecraft)的编号一般用罗马数字。



After it enters the lunar orbit, the lander-ascender combination will separate from the orbiter-returner combination.

While the orbiter-returner orbits about 200 km above the lunar surface, the lander-ascender will touch down on the northwest region of Oceanus Procellarum, also known as the Ocean of Storms, on the near side of the moon in early December.

About 2 kg of samples are expected to be collected and sealed in a container in the spacecraft.

Then the ascender will take off with the sample, and dock with the orbiter-returner in orbit. After the samples are transferred to the returner, the ascender will separate from the orbiter-returner.

The combination of orbiter and returner will then depart the lunar orbit and return to Earth's orbit, where the pair will break up and the returner will conduct a host of complicated maneuvers to return to a preset landing site in North China's Inner Mongolia autonomous region in mid-December.

The entire mission is scheduled to last about 23 days, according to the China National Space Administration.





3、“回(sample returning)”就是从月球表面采样返回地球,就是本次嫦娥五号执行的任务,计划把2千克的月壤样品带回地球。

嫦娥五号任务的科学目标主要是开展着陆点区域形貌探测和地质背景勘察(investigate the landing site's geological and topographic features),获取与月球样品相关的现场分析数据,建立现场探测数据与实验室分析数据之间的联系;对月球样品进行系统、长期的实验室研究,分析月壤结构、物理特性、物质组成(enable scientists to analyze the lunar samples' structure and physical traits),深化月球成因和演化历史的研究(deepen their research into the moon's origin and evolution)。


贫困县全部脱贫 all impoverished counties removed from the poverty list

China has achieved the feat of removing all 832 counties from the country's poverty list. The last nine impoverished counties, all in southwest China's Guizhou province, have eliminated absolute poverty, the provincial government announced on Nov 23. An assessment conducted by third-party agencies earlier this month showed that the overall incidence of poverty in the nine counties in Guizhou had been reduced to zero percent, and the satisfaction rate among locals was over 99 percent.


数字鸿沟 digital divide


The plan sets objectives for work in the 2020-2022 period focusing on seven types of services and scenarios most frequently used by or facing the elderly, such as day-to-day traveling, medical treatment, recreational activities, and civic services.


By the end of 2022, the level and convenience of smart services for the elderly will be significantly improved, online and offline services will be better coordinated, and long-term mechanisms bridging the digital divide will be established, according to the plan.


这里的digital divide就是我们所说的“数字鸿沟”或“信息鸿沟”,也可以用digital gap来表示,指在全球数字化进程(global digitalization)中,不同国家、地区、行业、企业、社区之间,由于对信息、网络技术的拥有程度、应用程度以及创新能力的差别而造成的信息落差及贫富进一步两极分化的趋势。



Improvements will include securing elderly services in emergencies, including optimizing the health screening procedure that requires health codes produced with mobile applications before entering public places, and offering basic services to senior citizens staying at home.

The plan urged efforts to help the elderly make medical treatment appointments by providing diversified channels and improving the way online appointments are made.

It also underscored the importance of retaining traditional financial service modes while making online consumption more convenient for this group.

To improve the competence of the elderly in terms of technology, measures will be taken to increase the supply of senior-friendly products, redesign internet applications, and enhance technology training for them.


这里的-friendly作为后缀,通常用在名词后面,表示“对...友好的”,比如:user-friendly interface(用户友好的界面)、environment-friendly(对环境友好的/环保的)。

方案提出,到2020年底前,集中力量推动各项传统服务兜底保障到位,抓紧出台实施一批解决老年人运用智能技术最迫切问题的有效措施(introduce a string of measures effectively addressing the most pressing problems of the elderly in using smart technologies),切实满足老年人基本生活需要。


打赏实名制 real-name management for livestreaming reward



Livestreaming shows and hosts should be clearly classified, based on their content, as music, dance, singing, fitness or games, among other categories, according to the circular.


Livestreaming是live(读作 /laɪv/)和streaming两个词的合成形式,这里的live是形容词,表示“现场的”,比如我们看春节晚会的时候,主持人就会说,这里是春晚直播现场,We are here at the live broadcast of the Spring Festival Gala;streaming最初被翻译成“流媒体”,其实就是在网络上播放音频或者视频文件,比如在线平台网飞(Netflix)就是一个TV and movie streaming platform(影视剧在线播放平台),而stream用作动词的时候,也可以用来表达“在线播放”,比如:Millions of videos are streamed every day on Youtube.(油管上每天播放的视频有数百万个)。那么把live和streaming结合在一起,就是在线播放现场的音频或视频,简而言之就是“直播”。



According to the circular, online show and livestreaming platforms should implement real-name management for their hosts and users keen on rewarding hosts. In addition, underage users and those who don't register with their real names should not be allowed to reward hosts.


在关于“打赏”的英文报道中,我们经常看到的表述是tip和reward。Tip的用法很多,之所以会被用来表示“打赏”,是因为tip用作动词和名词的时候,有一个意思是“(pay) a small amount of money to someone who has provided you with a service, in addition to the official payment and for their personal use”(在正常支付账单之外,给为你提供服务的人员支付的一小笔额外费用,供其个人使用),即“(付)小费”,比如:He gave the porter a tip/He tipped the porter(他给行李员付了小费)。而reward通常指“something (as money) given or offered in return for a service, good behavior, excellent work, etc.”(对接受的服务、良好的表现或者出色的工作等行为做出的奖赏、回报),也可以直接用作动词来表示“奖赏(某人)”,比如:The company rewarded him for his years of service with a grand farewell party and several presents(公司用一个盛大的派对和很多礼物回馈他多年的工作付出);Salespeople who are willing to work longer hours will receive significant rewards(主动加班的销售员会拿到丰厚的回报)。



The platforms should also put a cap on rewards given to hosts.

When a user's daily or monthly amount of reward reaches half the limit, the platform should send an alert. Users will be allowed to reward hosts after they confirm through a short messaging service, the circular said.The reward feature will be suspended for users whose daily or monthly limit is reached, it added.

It stated that the platforms should set a delayed arrival period for the reward, and if a host commits an illegal act, the platform should return the reward to the users.


失信约束制度 the mechanism for deterring acts of bad faith

日前召开的国务院常务会议,确定完善失信约束制度(the mechanism for deterring acts of bad faith)、健全社会信用体系(the social credit system)的措施,为发展社会主义市场经济提供支撑。




Administrative departments must determine acts of bad faith on the basis of legally binding documents.

The scope and procedures for sharing credit information will be standardized. The principle of legality and necessity will be observed when deciding whether and to what extent credit information is shared and disclosed.


Credit这个词用法很多,在学校里多用来表示“学分”,比如:He enrolled in a documentary course worth 20 credits(他修了一门纪录片的课程,有20个学分);此外,credit还可以用来表示银行账户的“余额”或“信用、信誉”,比如:Jacob found out his bank account was out of credit.(Jacob 银行卡里没有余额了),银行通常在给人贷款之前会进行 “credit check 信用审查”,并给申请者一个 “信用评分 credit score 或 credit rating”;另外,credit还有一个常用意思就是 “赞扬、认可、功劳、荣誉”,比如:You should take all the credits for this accomplishment(这个成就应该完全归功于你)。


The identification of lists of entities that have carried out serious acts of bad faith will be better regulated. The list will be limited to those who put public health and safety in grave jeopardy, seriously sabotage fair market competition order or disrupt normal social order. The list will not be willfully expanded without authorization.

Punishment against bad-faith acts will be enforced in accordance with laws and regulations, to make sure that penalties are meted out commensurate with dishonest behaviors.


这里的commensurate是形容词,表示“(在大小、重要性、质量等方面)相称的”,通常与with连用,比如:a salary that is commensurate with skills and experience(与技能经验相匹配的薪水)。

A credit repair mechanism will be established. Entities will be allowed to fix negative credit records, unless otherwise stipulated by laws and regulations, should they correct dishonest behaviors and eliminate their adverse impact.

The meeting underlined the need to strengthen information security and privacy protection. Illegal collection and transaction of credit information will be strictly cracked down on.


(中国日报网英语点津 Helen)